by William Kenneth Hamblin, Late Cenozoic Lava Dams In The Western Grand Canyon Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Late Cenozoic Lava Dams In The Western Grand Canyon book, The Late Cenozoic history of the western Grand Canyon is one of profound and rapid transformation. The constantly changing morphology and dynamics of the canyon during this period have been recorded in spectacular geologic features, such as frozen lava cascades and lava dams, as well as volcanic cones, necks, and dikes. All of these unique features, which make the western part of the Grand Canyon strikingly different from other parts, resulted from the interaction of basaltic lava flows and vigorous erosion by the Colorado River. The volcanic phenomena in the Grand Canyon were created by eruptions of basaltic lava in the southernmost part of the Uinkaret volcanic field. Some lava flows were extruded on the Uinkaret Plateau and cascaded over the outer rim of the Grand Canyon into Toroweap Valley and Whitmore Wash, while others were extruded within the Grand Canyon itself and partly covered the Esplanade Platform. The remaining flows cascaded over the rim of the canyon's inner gorge. Red molten rock cascading into the canyon and forming lava dams must have presented a spectacular scene, the likes of which have never been viewed by human beings. Even more spectacular is how quickly these lava dams formed - from small single-flow dams that were created in only a few days, to complex, multiple-flow dams that took several thousand years. The dams were then destroyed when the water impounded behind them ultimately overflowed. Although their construction and destruction occurred in a geologic instant, these events were the most significant in the late Cenozoic history of the Grand Canyon. Because of the largely inaccessible nature of the western part of the canyon, the author and his field assistants researching this area had to be creative in their data-gathering techniques. For example, they made photo mosaics of the entire canyon wall using a hand-held aerial camera; these mosaics served as cross sections on which all geological data were plotted. In addition, to photograph features hidden from view at river level, they utilized light aircraft and helicopters. Finally, a professional mountain climber collected samples from various units exposed high on vertical cliffs. Memoir 183 is a compilation of this field work, which took more than two decades to complete. It contains numerous maps, photographs, and cross sections of frozen lava cascades and the remnants of a sequence of 13 major lava dams that once formed huge barriers to the Colorado River. The volume also discusses the history of lakes that formed behind these lava dams and the associated sedimentary deposits that once partly filled the Grand Canyon. The results of this study provide new insights into the rates at which the Colorado River is able to downcut its channel, as well as the major factors that controlled erosion of the Grand Canyon.
by Diane E Boyer, Damming Grand Canyon Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Damming Grand Canyon book, In 1923, America paid close attention, via special radio broadcasts, newspaper headlines, and cover stories in popular magazines, as a government party descended the Colorado to survey Grand Canyon. Fifty years after John Wesley Powell's journey, the canyon still had an aura of mystery and extreme danger. At one point, the party was thought lost in a flood. Something important besides adventure was going on. Led by Claude Birdseye and including colorful characters such as early river-runner Emery Kolb, popular writer Lewis Freeman, and hydraulic engineer Eugene La Rue, the expedition not only made the first accurate survey of the river gorge but sought to decide the canyon's fate. The primary goal was to determine the best places to dam the Grand. With Boulder Dam not yet built, the USGS, especially La Rue, contested with the Bureau of Reclamation over how best to develop the Colorado River. The survey party played a major role in what was known and thought about Grand Canyon. The authors weave a narrative from the party's firsthand accounts and frame it with a thorough history of water politics and development and the Colorado River. The recommended dams were not built, but the survey both provided base data that stood the test of time and helped define Grand Canyon in the popular imagination.
by Byron E Pearson, Saving Grand Canyon Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Saving Grand Canyon book, The Grand Canyon has been saved from dams three times in the last century. Unthinkable as it may seem today, many people promoted damming the Colorado River in the canyon during the early twentieth century as the most feasible solution to the water and power needs of the Pacific Southwest. These efforts reached their climax during the 1960s when the federal government tried to build two massive hydroelectric dams in the Grand Canyon. Although not located within the Grand Canyon National Park or Monument, they would have flooded lengthy, unprotected reaches of the canyon and along thirteen miles of the park boundary. Saving Grand Canyon tells the remarkable true story of the attempts to build dams in one of America’s most spectacular natural wonders. Based on twenty-five years of research, this fascinating ride through history chronicles a hundred years of Colorado River water development, demonstrates how the National Environmental Policy Act came to be, and challenges the myth that the Sierra Club saved the Grand Canyon. It also shows how the Sierra Club parlayed public perception as the canyon’s savior into the leadership of the modern environmental movement after the National Environmental Policy Act became law. The tale of the Sierra Club stopping the dams has become so entrenched—and so embellished—that many historians, popular writers, and filmmakers have ignored the documented historical record. This epic story puts the events from 1963–1968 into the broader context of Colorado River water development and debunks fifty years of Colorado River and Grand Canyon myths.
by Jared Farmer, Glen Canyon Dammed Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Glen Canyon Dammed book, "Focusing on the saddening, maddening example of Glen Canyon, Jared Farmer traces the history of exploration and development in the Four Corners region, discusses the role of tourism in changing the face of the West, and shows how the "invention" of Lake Powell has served multiple needs. He also seeks to identify the point at which change becomes loss: How do people deal with losing places they love? How are we to remember or restore lost places?"--BOOK JACKET.
by Mathew Barrett Gross, The Glen Canyon Reader Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Glen Canyon Reader book, Stretching for 170 miles across northern Arizona and southern Utah, Lake Powell is both a vacationer's paradise and the second-largest reservoir in the Western Hemisphere. Yet few visitors to the lake today are aware of the lost world that lies beneath its crystal waters. Once an enchanted landscape of sandstone cliffs and secret crevices, Glen Canyon has been but a memory since the damming of the Colorado River near Page, Arizona, in 1963. Often called "the place no one knew," Glen Canyon was in fact explored by thousands of visitors—including dozens of writers—before the dam's completion. River runner Mathew Gross has combed the literature of Glen Canyon to assemble this wide-ranging look at the history of this now-submerged natural treasure, the first book to bring together these voices of remembrance. Beginning with the first known written report of Glen Canyon in an eighteenth-century missionary journal, Gross has selected accounts of the canyon from both before and after the dam. Included are some of the West's best-known writers—Zane Grey and Katie Lee, Edward Abbey and Ellen Meloy—as well as Pulitzer Prize winners John McPhee and Wallace Stegner. Other authors range from David Brower, director of the Sierra Club when the dam was built, to Floyd Dominy, the federal bureaucrat responsible for the dam. The Glen Canyon Reader is a book that may be read straight through as entertaining and informative history. But as Gross suggests, "Perhaps more pleasurable is to flip through these pages, to poke around and explore, as one would have done in Glen Canyon . . . to visit and revisit the places contained in this book, these cool glens and embracing alcoves and hidden grottos, these canyons and dreams and ghosts that will always, always be with us."
by Michael Collier, Dams And Rivers Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Dams And Rivers book, Dams & river regulation have become an integral part of 20th-century landscape & livelihood. Virtually every river in the lower 48 states is now regulated by dams, locks, or diversions. This report illustrates the downstream consequences of dams & explains the basis on which rivers can be scientifically managed. Following a look at a free-flowing river -- the upper Salt River of Arizona -- & its natural cycles of flow & sediment, 6 regulated rivers are examined. Each of these rivers -- the Snake, Rio Grande, Chattahoochee, Platte, Green & Colorado -- highlights a particular use of a dam or a particular downstream effect.