by Hugh Thomas, The Slave Trade Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Slave Trade book, After many years of research, award-winning historian Hugh Thomas portrays, in a balanced account, the complete history of the slave trade. Beginning with the first Portuguese slaving expeditions, he describes and analyzes the rise of one of the largest and most elaborate maritime and commercial ventures in all of history. Between 1492 and 1870, approximately eleven million black slaves were carried from Africa to the Americas to work on plantations, in mines, or as servants in houses. The Slave Trade is alive with villains and heroes and illuminated by eyewitness accounts. Hugh Thomas's achievement is not only to present a compelling history of the time but to answer as well such controversial questions as who the traders were, the extent of the profits, and why so many African rulers and peoples willingly collaborated. Thomas also movingly describes such accounts as are available from the slaves themselves.
by James Walvin, The Slave Trade Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The Slave Trade book, In the four centuries before the 1860s, the Atlantic slave trade transformed the face of the Americas, enhanced the material well-being of the West and wrought enormous damage on Africa. This text aims to provide a fresh narrative and interpretation suitable for students and general readers alike.
by Charles River Editors, The East African Slave Trade Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download The East African Slave Trade book, *Includes pictures *Includes contemporary accounts of the slave trade *Includes online resources and a bibliography for further reading "It is certain that large numbers of slaves were exported from eastern Africa; the best evidence for this is the magnitude of the Zanj revolt in Iraq in the 9th century, though not all of the slaves involved were Zanj. There is little evidence of what part of eastern Africa the Zanj came from, for the name is here evidently used in its general sense, rather than to designate the particular stretch of the coast, from about 3N. to 5S., to which the name was also applied." - Ghada Hashem Talhami "The Zanj Rebellion Reconsidered." The International Journal of African Historical Studies. 10 (3): 443-461. (1977). It has often been said that the greatest invention of all time was the sail, which facilitated the internationalization of the globe and thus ushered in the modern era. Columbus' contact with the New World, alongside European maritime contact with the Far East, transformed human history, and in particular the history of Africa. It was the sail that linked the continents of Africa, Asia, and Europe, and thus it was also the sail that facilitated the greatest involuntary human migration of all time. The Transatlantic Slave Trade was founded by the Portuguese in the 15th century for the specific purpose of supplying the New World colonies with African slave labor. It was soon joined by all the major trading powers of Europe, and it reached its peak in the 18th century with the founding and development of plantation economies that ran from the South American mainland through the Caribbean and into the southern states of the United States. Toward the end of the 18th century, it began to fall into decline, and by the beginning of the 19th century, various abolition movements heralded its eventual outlawing. It was, throughout its existence, however, a purely commercial phenomenon, supplying agricultural power to vast plantations on an industrial scale. In every respect, it was unaffected and uninfluenced by history, sentimentality, tradition, or common law. Slaves transported across the Atlantic Ocean remained a commodity with a codified value, like a horse or a steam engine, existing often within an equation of obsolescence and replacement that was cheaper than nurturing and maintenance. The East African Slave Trade on the other hand, or the Indian Ocean Slave Trade as it was also known, was a far more complex and nuanced phenomenon, far older, significantly more widespread, rooted in ancient traditions, and governed by rules very different to those in the western hemisphere. It is also often referred to as the Arab Slave Trade, although this, specifically, might perhaps be more accurately applied to the more ancient variant of organized African slavery, affecting North Africa, and undertaken prior to the advent of Islam and certainly prior to the spread of the institution south as far as the south/east African coast. It also involved the slavery of non-African races and was, therefore, more general in scope. The African slave trade is a complex and deeply divisive subject that has had a tendency to evolve according the political requirements of any given age, and is often touchable only with the correct distribution of culpability. It has for many years, therefore, been deemed singularly unpalatable to implicate Africans themselves in the perpetration of the institution, and only in recent years has the large-scale African involvement in both the Atlantic and Indian Ocean Slave Trades come to be an accepted fact. There can, however, be no doubt that even though large numbers of indigenous Africans were liable, it was European ingenuity and greed that fundamentally drove the industrialization of the Transatlantic slave trade in response to massive new market demands created by their equally ruthless exploitation of the Americas.
by Richard Anderson, Liberated Africans And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade 1807 1896 Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Liberated Africans And The Abolition Of The Slave Trade 1807 1896 book, "Interrogates the development of the world's first international courts of humanitarian justice and the subsequent "liberation" of nearly 200,000 Africans in the nineteenth century"--
by Rosalind Shaw, Memories Of The Slave Trade Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Memories Of The Slave Trade book, In a work that challenges recurring claims that Africans felt (and still feel) no sense of moral responsibility concerning the sale of slaves, Rosalind Shaw traces memories of the slave trade in Temne-speaking communities in Sierra Leone. While the slave-trading past is rarely remembered in explicit verbal accounts, it is often made vividly present in such forms as rogue spirits, diviners' visions, the imagery of divination techniques, and accounts of an invisible city of witches whose affluence was built on the theft of human lives. Drawing on extensive fieldwork and archival research, Shaw argues that memories of the slave trade have shaped (and been reshaped by) experiences of colonialism, postcolonialism, and the country's ten-year rebel war. These ritual and visionary memories make hitherto invisible realities manifest, forming a prism through which past and present mutually configure each other.
by José C. Curto, Africa And The Americas Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Africa And The Americas book, A collection of essyas reflecting an important structural feature of the slave trade: its circularity. Starting with the removal from Africa, the collection then carries into discussions of ethnic identity, religion and creolisation. Comparitive essays develop the theme of root experience in Africa against the facts of life for disenfranchised slaves, painting a picture of a cohesive worldview shaped by the slave voyage and African beliefs. The collection returns to Africa with analyses of the impact on Africa of formerly slaveholding nations.
by Professor Srividhya Swaminathan, Debating The Slave Trade Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Debating The Slave Trade book, How did the arguments developed in the debate to abolish the slave trade help to construct a British national identity and character in the late eighteenth century? Srividhya Swaminathan examines books, pamphlets, and literary works to trace the changes in rhetorical strategies utilized by both sides of the abolitionist debate. Framing them as competing narratives engaged in defining the nature of the Briton, Swaminathan reads the arguments of pro- and anti-abolitionists as a series of dialogues among diverse groups at the center and peripheries of the empire. Arguing that neither side emerged triumphant, Swaminathan suggests that the Briton who emerged from these debates represented a synthesis of arguments, and that the debates to abolish the slave trade are marked by rhetorical transformations defining the image of the Briton as one that led naturally to nineteenth-century imperialism and a sense of global superiority. Because the slave-trade debates were waged openly in print rather than behind the closed doors of Parliament, they exerted a singular influence on the British public. At their height, between 1788 and 1793, publications numbered in the hundreds, spanned every genre, and circulated throughout the empire. Among the voices represented are writers from both sides of the Atlantic in dialogue with one another, such as key African authors like Ignatius Sancho, Phillis Wheatley, and Olaudah Equiano; West India planters and merchants; and Quaker activist Anthony Benezet. Throughout, Swaminathan offers fresh and nuanced readings that eschew the view that the abolition of the slave trade was inevitable or that the ultimate defeat of pro-slavery advocates was absolute.